EVLN: Supercap, ultracap, Goldcap> take the plunge (v)

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EVLN: Supercap, ultracap, Goldcap> take the plunge (v)

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https://interestingengineering.com/could-ultracapacitors-replace-batteries-in-future-electric-vehicles
Could Ultracapacitors Replace Batteries In Future Electric Vehicles?
February, 17th 2019  Christopher McFadden

[images  
https://static.interestingengineering.com/images/FEBRUARY/sizes/ultracapacitors_versus_batteries_resize_md.jpg
ultra-capacitors versus batteries  Extracted from: skeletontech

https://static.interestingengineering.com/images/sizes/Teslachargingstation_resize_md.jpg
Could Ultracapacitors Replace Batteries In Future Electric Vehicles?
Source: Depositphotos


videos  dated
https://youtu.be/oVD3fnpLXs8
WHAT IS SUPERCAPACITOR ULTRACAPACITOR
Aug 26, 2018 - Uploaded by SKILFUL LIFE  6:48
A supercapacitor is also called as supercap, ultracapacitor or Goldcap. It
is a high-capacity capacitor with ...

https://youtu.be/GeSvErqdmIM
How Supercapacitors Could Make Batteries a Thing of the Past
Aug 31, 2018 - Uploaded by Seeker  3:53
These Squishy Batteries Are Made Out of Water, Here's How They Work ...

https://youtu.be/UEi3D88yczk
Super / Ultra Capacitors | The Future of EV Car Batteries?
May 18, 2018 - Uploaded by EV Opinion  9:52
Batteries were invented in 1800. Have we moved forward much since then? Lets
look at how we could improve ...
]

Ultracapacitors have been making the news of late but could they viably
replace batteries in the EVs of the future?

Ultracapacitors are awesome. But could they viably replace batteries in
future electric vehicles?

Whilst they have significant advantages over batteries, after all, they are
much lighter, faster to charge, safer and non-toxic, there are some areas
batteries wipe the floor with them. At least for now.

With recent acquisitions of ultracapacitor manufacturers by the likes of
Tesla, ultracapacitor could be on the verge of ousting batteries as the
go-to power source for electric cars.
What is an ultracapacitor?

Ultracapacitors, also called supercapacitors or electrochemical capacitors,
are a kind of energy storage system that has been gaining popularity in
recent years. They can be thought of as akin to a cross between an ordinary
capacitor and a battery, but different from both.

Just like a battery, ultracapacitor cells have a positive and negative
electrode separated by an electrolyte. But, unlike batteries,
ultracapacitors store energy electrostatically (like a capacitor) rather
than chemically like a battery.

Ultracapacitors also have a dielectric separator dividing the electrolyte -
just like a capacitor. This internal cell structure allows ultracapacitors
to have a very high energy storage density, especially when compared to a
normal capacitor.

When compared to batteries, ultracapacitors do store less energy than a
similarly sized battery. But, they are able to release it much more rapidly
as the discharge is not dependent on a chemical reaction taking place.

Another great benefit of them is that they can be charged many times over
with little or degradation (in excess of 1 million charge/discharge cycles
is not uncommon). This is because no physical or chemical changes occur when
a charge is stored within them.

The most commonly used electrode material for supercapacitors is carbon in
various forms such as activated carbon, carbon fiber-cloth, carbide-derived
carbon, carbon aerogel, graphite (graphene),  and carbon nanotubes (CNTs).

Supercapacitors are used in applications requiring many rapid
charge/discharge cycles rather than long term compact energy storage. Also,
they are used in car booster packs and power banks.

Can ultracapacitors replace batteries?

The answer to this question depends very much on the desired application in
question. Both offer advantages and disadvantages over the other. As
previously mentioned, batteries have a much higher energy density than
ultracapacitors.

This means that they are more suitable for higher energy density
applications and can allow for a device to run for longer. Ultracapacitors
have a much higher power density than batteries.  This makes them ideal for
high-drain applications like powering an accelerating car.

Ultracapacitors have a much longer lifetime than batteries. A regular
battery can handle around 2000-3000 charge and discharge cycles whilst
ultracapacitors can usually sustain more than 1,000,000.

ultra-capacitors versus batteries

Ultracapacitors are much safer and considerably less toxic. They contain no
harmful chemicals or heavy metals and are highly unlikely to explode as
batteries can.

Ultracapacitors have a much greater operating range when compared to
batteries. They beat batteries hands down in this area and can operate
within ranges of between -40 and +65 degrees Celsius.

Ultracapacitors are able to be charged and discharged much more rapidly than
batteries, usually within seconds. Batteries, on the other hand, charge a
lot more slowly (depending on size and type of course).

Ultracapacitors are also much more efficient at self-discharge than
batteries.

Many ultracapacitors also have a much longer shelf life when compared to
batteries. Some, like SkelCap cells, are able to be stored for as much as 15
years at a time with little to no decline in capacity.

Like with any technology, the main drive for their application is their cost
to benefit. Ultracapacitors tend to be the more economical choice over the
long run for applications that need short bursts of energy.

Batteries, however, are a much better choice for applications that require
constant, low current over time.
Could ultracapacitors replace batteries in future electric cars?

As we have seen, ultracapacitors are best suited for situations where a lot
of power is needed in short order. In terms of electric cars, this would
mean they would be better than batteries when the vehicle needs bursts of
energy - like during acceleration.

In fact, this is just what Toyota has done with the Yaris Hybrid-R concept
car. It utilizes a supercapacitor for just this purpose.

PSA Peugeot Citroen has also started employing ultracapacitors as part of
its start-stop [ice] fuel saving systems. This allows for much faster
initial acceleration.

Mazda's i-ELOOP system also uses ultracapacitors to store energy during
deceleration. The power stored is then used for the engine's stop-start
systems.

For general driving, ultracapacitors are not a substitute for batteries in
electric vehicles, yet. For this reason, batteries, like Li-on, are likely
going to be the go-to power supply for EVs for the near to distant future,
until a better alternative can be developed of course.

Many believe it is more likely ultracapacitors will become ever more
commonplace as power-regeneration systems during deceleration. This stored
power can then be re-used during periods of acceleration rather than direct
replacements for batteries.

However, according to this study [
https://steps.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/2015-UCD-ITS-RR-15-09-1.pdf
], they could have applications in hybrid vehicles in place of batteries
when "the power demand is less than the power capability of the electric
motor; when the vehicle power demand exceeds that of the electric motor, the
engine is operated to meet the vehicle power demand plus to provide the
power to recharge the supercapacitor unit."

Recent research into graphene-based supercapacitors could mean the days of
the battery in electric cars could soon be over. The study, a collaboration
between scientists at Rice University and the Queensland University of
Technology resulted in two papers, published in Journal of Power Sources [
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775314017133
] and Nanotechnology [
http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/25/43/435405
].

This solution consists of two layers of graphene with an electrolyte layer
between them. This film is strong, thing, and is able to release large
amounts of energy in a short time.

But this is a given, it is a supercapacitor after all. What makes this study
different is that they suggest batteries could be replaced with large
amounts of supercapacitors throughout future electric vehicles as a
substitute for bulky batteries.

This could include integrating them into body panels, roof paneling, floors,
and even doors, for example. In theory, this could provide the vehicle with
all the energy it needs and make it considerably lighter than
battery-powered electric vehicles.

Such an EV would also be charged considerably faster than battery-powered
ones. But, like all ultracapacitors, this solution still can't hold as much
energy as standard batteries.

"In the future, it is hoped the supercapacitor will be developed to store
more energy than a Li-Ion battery while retaining the ability to release its
energy up to 10 times faster - meaning the car could be entirely powered by
the supercapacitors in its body panels,” said the study's co-author Jinzhang
Liu.

"After one full charge, this car should be able to run up to 500km (310
miles) - similar to a petrol-powered car and more than double the current
limit of an electric car.”

EV manufacturers could also be taking interest in the possibility of
ultracapacitors for future cars. Tesla, for example, has 'taken the plunge'
and recently acquired an ultracapacitor and battery component manufacturer
...
[© interestingengineering.com]
...
http://electric-vehicle-discussion-list.413529.n4.nabble.com/template/NamlServlet.jtp?macro=search_page&node=413529&query=ultracapacitor&sort=date
search evdl archives on  ultracapacitor
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+
http://www.businesskorea.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=29182
China's CATL to Build World's Largest EV Battery Plant in Germany
February 18, 2019  China is increasing its presence in the global electric
vehicle (EV) battery market and this is being led by CATL, which is the
second-largest EV battery supplier ... Competition between Chinese and
Korean companies in the global electric vehicle battery market is
intensifying ...
http://www.businesskorea.co.kr/news/photo/201902/29182_40509_3558.png
...
https://www.handelsblatt.com/today/companies/catl-cars-germanys-big-chinese-made-battery-plant-to-dwarf-teslas-gigafactory/23955856.html?ticket=ST-2509839-37ryQ4Hq4Y7tkS7blPLw-ap1
Germany’s big (Chinese-made) battery plant to dwarf Tesla’s Gigafactory
02/06/2019  The e-car battery plant in the city of Erfurt, built by Chinese
company CATL, will likely be much larger: It could be three times the size
of Tesla’s ... Germany’s car industry will finally get what it couldn’t
establish on its own ...
https://www.handelsblatt.com/images/call-it-nanofactory-instead-/23956000/4-format2020.jpg




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Re: EVLN: Supercap, ultracap, Goldcap> take the plunge (v)

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Could  Ultracapacitors Replace Batteries In Future Electric Vehicles?
> The answer is no, no matter how much hype there is.

>
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Re: EVLN: Supercap, ultracap, Goldcap> take the plunge (v)

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I think what the article glossed over is that supercaps have poor energy
density. They have excellent power, however, and the author might have
mixed up the terms, I don't remember. Whether it will be possible to
make a high density supercap is yet to be seen.

Peri

------ Original Message ------
From: "Alan Arrison via EV" <[hidden email]>
To: [hidden email]
Cc: "Alan Arrison" <[hidden email]>
Sent: 22-Feb-19 6:17:31 PM
Subject: Re: [EVDL] EVLN: Supercap, ultracap, Goldcap> take the plunge
(v)

>
>Could  Ultracapacitors Replace Batteries In Future Electric Vehicles?
>>The answer is no, no matter how much hype there is.
>
>>
>_______________________________________________
>UNSUBSCRIBE: http://www.evdl.org/help/index.html#usub
>http://lists.evdl.org/listinfo.cgi/ev-evdl.org
>Please discuss EV drag racing at NEDRA (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/NEDRA)
>

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